|| General Field Methods | Field Instrument Instructions |
| Taxonomic Keys and Identification Guides |
General Field Methods
Soil moisture may be measured in the following ways:
- Gravimetrically. Collect soil, record the wet weight, dry the soil, and calculate % soil moisture as (wet mass - dry mass)/(dry mass).
- Hydrosense Moisture Probe.
Digital pocket thermometers are available for measuring soil temperature.
Soil Organic Matter
Soil organic matter is typically estimated by the "loss on ignition" method.
Soil Organic Matter Analysis.pdf
Aboveground Plant Biomass and Necromass
Biomass and necromass can be measured by clipping and removing all of living and non-living organic material in a given sample unit (typically a 20 x 20 cm wire quadrat frame), placing them in separate paper bags, and drying the material to constant weight in a drying oven at CERA.
Field Instrument Instructions
Hard copies of keys are available at CERA except for those marked with an asterisk.
- Insect Orders - Pictured key to the principal orders of insects.
- Aquatic_Arthropod_Key.pdf - Key to the Common Macroscopic Arthropods of Local Lakes.
- Plankton_Key.pdf - Key to Common Plankton Animals of Grinnell Waters.
- Soil_Animals_Key.pdf - Key to Common Small Soil Animals.
- Evergreen and Deciduous Trees Key
- * Winter_Trees_Shrubs_Vines.pdf - Key to common trees, shrubs, and vines in winter.
- Guide to Trees in Grinnell - A winter tree identification guide first published by Henry S. Conard in 1927, updated and annotated in 2003 by Larissa Mottl.
- Leaf Morphology - Illustrations for terminology associated with leaf shapes, margins, and leaf arrangements.
- * Field Guide to the Tracks of Mammals: Game, Furbearer, and Some Domestic
- Bats - Key to Bats of Iowa (Dr. John Bowles, Central College)
Amphibians, Reptiles, Fishes
- See Taxonomic Keys to the Common Animals of the North Central States (1982) by Eddy and Hodson.
| Top |