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Exoplanet Research Expanded

Eliza KemptonEliza Kempton, assistant professor of physics, has received the Cottrell College Science Award to “exoplanets” — planets that exist outside this solar system. Kempton’s research has focused on modeling and characterizing the atmospheres of low-mass exoplanets known as super-Earths since she was a theorist in the initial pioneering observational studies of super-Earth atmospheres.

Kempton’s project, “Exoplanet Science with Grinnell's Grant O. Gale Observatory,” focuses on planets in distant solar systems.

“Under the dark Iowa skies we are able to view a large number of planetary systems,” says Kempton, principal investigator for the two-year project. Using the observatory’s 24-inch reflecting telescope, Kempton and her students will collect data that may lead to confirmation of planetary candidates or even discovery of additional exoplanets.

“We detect these planets using the transit method,” Kempton adds. “A transit occurs when an orbiting planet passes in front if its host star, causing a periodic dimming of light from the star. The regular dimming of the host star allows us to infer the presence of a planet.”

Kempton’s $40,000 award, plus additional funds from the Office of the Dean, will help Kempton and her students conduct research over the course of the next two summers.

Kempton and four students working with her already have obtained initial high-quality transit light curves and compiled a data reduction pipeline for transit data obtained with the Gale Observatory telescope. Plus they have started using a new Apogee camera, as well as a filter wheel and a smaller auto-guiding camera. This equipment improves the precision of future transit data obtained with the telescope.

Additional upgrades to the telescope hardware made possible by the award will enable Kempton and her students to expand detection thresholds to smaller planets orbiting fainter stars. This research ultimately will contribute to the overall understanding of what types of planets exist around stars in our galaxy, how they form and evolve, and how typical systems like our solar system might be — getting to the age-old question of “Are we alone?”

The award will fund student workstations for performing data analysis, supplies for the observatory, stipends for summer students and Kempton, who also will receive a research computer. In addition, funds for travel will be used to attend conferences and advance collaborative work.

Kempton has co-authored more than 30 articles related to exoplanets in journals such as Nature and the Astrophysical Journal.

About the Cottrell College Science Awards

The Cottrell College Science Awards, from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement, are carefully reviewed by a selection panel of top scientists and have supported the research work of more than 1,500 early career scientists at 400 institutions over the last 16 years.

Research Corporation for Science Advancement was founded in 1912 and is the second-oldest foundation in the United States (after the Carnegie Corporation) and the oldest foundation for science advancement. Research Corporation is a leading advocate for the sciences and a major funder of scientific innovation and of research in America’s colleges and universities.


Open to Interpretation

Grinnell College's Faulconer Gallery collection is filled with intriguing and curious works of art, which can be enjoyed or interpreted in many different ways.

The gallery's new exhibition, "Open to Interpretation," brings together 35 such works and asks visitors to provide comments and captions, selections of which will be shared for others to enjoy and ponder.

"Open to Interpretation" is curated by Tilly Woodard, curator of academic and community outreach, and Lesley Wright, director of the Faulconer Gallery. They selected 35 works from the gallery's art collection, including paintings, prints, and sculptures dating from the 1600s through the 2000s.

"With this exhibition, we invite visitors to collaborate with us, offering insights, facts, stories and conjectures about any piece that moves them," Woodward and Wright said in a statement. "We will share some of what we gather in our wall texts, and all that we gather in binders around the gallery. We will continually update both the binders and the selections on the walls.

"Through words and pictures contributed by our visitors, we hope individuals will see a piece differently, laugh aloud, stir an emotion, or ask more questions," they added. "Art should never be static, with just one fixed meaning. We hope that by inviting visitors to share and enjoy many interpretations, they will be open to the art and to making it their own."

The gallery already has collected some visitors' musings about a number of the works, including a Philippine grave marker in form of "Ship of the Dead," created by an unknown artist.

"We all think about death," wrote Tanner Alger, a student at Grinnell Middle School. "What will happen? Where will I go? I think for some cultures this boat might be the answer. It will carry you to wherever we will go, like the boats of Ra, the Egyptian sun god. But this is the Philippine way to the afterlife." 

Students from the Grinnell College Preschool also studied the marker and then collaborated to create the following story about it. 

"Mice are sailing on a stormy day. They fall off into the water, so they made a boat out of paper so they could get back on their wooden boat. Then they are playing pirates. The pirates come and find the mice. They didn't know that people were on the boat, too. The people were pirates trying to get the rats off. The pirates caught the mice in the net. The pirates ate the rats. And then the rats came out and turned into squirrels.

"The pirates fell off the boat; they couldn't swim so they sank to the bottom. The mice cheered! The pirates were never seen again. There was a restaurant on the boat where the mice could eat cheese. There was a party at the restaurant and everybody cheered."

"Open to Interpretation" will continue through Sunday, Aug. 2, in the Faulconer Gallery, Bucksbaum Center for the Arts, 1108 Park Ave., Grinnell. The exhibition is free and open to the public daily from 11 a.m. through 5 p.m.

For more information about exhibitions and related programs, contact the Faulconer Gallery, 641-269-4660. The gallery is accessible. Accommodation requests may be made to Conference Operations, 641-269-3235.

Lexy Greenwell's Virtual Commencement

Alexis "Lexy" Greenwell ’15 used her iPhone to virtually walk across the stage at Grinnell College's commencement ceremony even though she was 725 miles away at Craig Hospital in Englewood, Colorado.

Janet Davis, associate professor of computer science and Greenwell's faculty adviser, represented Greenwell at Grinnell College's ceremony honoring 405 graduates on Monday, May 18, in Grinnell, Iowa.

As she joined the parade of graduates crossing the stage, Davis held up her iPhone, which was connected to Greenwell's iPhone via Skype. Greenwell saw the view from the stage and shared in the graduation experience as Grinnell College President Raynard S. Kington conveyed his congratulations and then the two exchanged virtual waves.

Greenwell also was able to view the entire ceremony via a live stream on a projection screen. Following Greenwell's virtual walk across the stage, Grinnell College Trustee Steve Holtze and his wife, Elizabeth, both 1968 graduates of Grinnell and residents of the Denver area, presented Greenwell with her diploma.

"It was really, really cool . . . just an exciting moment," says Greenwell, who wore a cap and gown for her commencement celebration at Craig Hospital. Family and friends joined her at the hospital where she received intensive neurological rehabilitation that helped her recover from several brain hemorrhages and two brain surgeries that threatened her life and interrupted her studies at Grinnell College.

Greenwell was able to finish her senior year via interactive classes, earning a bachelor's degree in computer science with a technology studies concentration.

"With her sparkling personality and can-do attitude, Lexy has always been a pleasure to teach and advise," professor Davis says. "She has shown remarkable determination in the face of adversity. Lexy has worked closely with faculty, staff and classmates to participate fully in all of her classes — including a team software development project — despite being far away from Grinnell."

The 22-year-old singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and beatboxer, who has performed for Reba McEntire and shared a stage with David Foster and other celebrities, says music played a key role in her recovery.

"Music definitely helped save me. It was a huge part of my healing process," Greenwell says. She aims to combine her love of music and technology to become a music executive. She also plans to write a book about her experiences in hopes of inspiring others.

"It takes some time when you go through something like this to get yourself to a place where you feel like you can move forward," she says, adding with a smile, "My future is wide open, and I'm so grateful for the amazing life I have."

Finding Your Passion …

Lilliana Bagnoli in a crowd of men and women in brightly colored Indian garbReady to dig deeper into a burgeoning interest? Grinnell will give you the tools.

... through courses

For Lilianna Bagnoli ’15, the topic she wanted to dig into was international development. Her First-Year Tutorial about corporations and their role in developing countries got her started. Another course her first year, Introduction to Global Development Studies, sealed the deal.

“I can’t think of a problem I’d rather spend my life working on than international development,” Bagnoli says.

During her second year, she took a three-week short course about the importance of sociocultural compatibility in creating successful development initiatives. The course was taught by 2011 Grinnell Prize winner James Kofi Annan, president of Challenging Heights.

Challenging Heights is a nonprofit organization in Ghana that provides education and support for children who have returned from slavery and horrific forms of child labor.

... through internships

Grinnell Prize winners not only interact with students on campus, but also offer summer internships that allow students to immerse themselves in social justice work.

Bagnoli completed internships with Challenging Heights in Winneba, Ghana, and the Hovde Foundation in Washington, D.C. during the summer after her second year.

By the end of her internships, Bagnoli’s interest in international development had evolved into a passion. So she created an independent major — international development studies.

Bagnoli studied in Pune and Delhi, India, her third year. She studied economics at St. Stephen’s College, which included the traditional cramming for cumulative final exams. “I learned a lot through that.”

She also interned with a corporation to figure out how, as required by a 2013 law, to spend two percent of its profits on corporate social responsibility in India. Additionally, she helped measure the impact of that spending.

... through research

Lilliana Bagnoli in front of the Taj Mahal and reflecting poolBagnoli’s experiences in India directly led to two major research projects her senior year:

  1. Situating her own experience at a multinational corporation in India within the international landscape of corporate social responsibility.
  2. Spatially analyzing the locations of India’s informal labor force, which is her senior thesis project, a requirement of her independent major.

Her thesis “is a product of living in the country,” Bagnoli says. “Being able to explore someplace else and come back and situate it within a rigorous academic framework is special.”

The stereotyped view of India is a country sharply divided between rich and poor. “But there are really expansive webs of interaction between people of a variety of socioeconomic and religious backgrounds,” Bagnoli says.

In addition to sharpening her research skills, Bagnoli is developing top-notch writing skills. “Professor [Patrick] Inglis [sociology] has been incredible in preparing me to write at a professional level, always probing me to think about my audience, how my research contributes to the current literature on my topic, and what ‘puzzle’ or unanswered question I am addressing in my writing,” Bagnoli says.

“The opportunity to have a mentor who’s overseeing your project and who can offer a critical lens on what you’re studying is incredibly valuable,” Bagnoli says.

Lilianna Bagnoli ’15 is from Berea, Kentucky.

Grinnell Welcomes Alumni to Reunion

More than 1,100 Grinnell College alumni, friends, and family will return to campus for the College’s 136th Alumni Reunion Weekend.

Crowd dining in Quad's wood paneled dining hall, colorful banners hung from raftersAlums from as far as Germany, Costa Rica, and Taiwan will return to Grinnell from May 27 to May 31.  

Reunion is one of the College’s biggest social events with parties, dances, dinners, and Wonderland Family Fun!

Other weekend highlights include:

  • an all-Reunion picnic,
  • a special Honor G reception highlighting Grinnell athletics,
  • a 5K fun run,
  • class dinners,
  • tours of the campus and community,
  • a special exhibition of lath art by the late John Pfitsch,
  • and a special student performance of a series of vignettes on “The Grinnell Experience: Life in the ‘60s,” by Murry Nelson ’69.

Alums will look back at the impact they have had on the world, from the founding of the student organization Concerned Black Students in the late ‘60s, to the films alumni have made and the books they’ve written.

Silver, gold, and copper colored tag, focus on the gold which say 50th ReunionThe 50th reunion class of 1965 has organized two series of “Grinnell Talks” featuring classmates who will discuss their life’s work including American involvements in Southeast Asia to the science of the aging brain.

Ten alumni will receive awards for service to their professions, the College, and community.

A number of special presentations are planned for the weekend including a College President’s Panel, which will discuss the future of higher education. The panel will feature:

  • Grinnell’s President Raynard Kington,
  • Mary Sue Coleman ’65 (University of Michigan),
  • David Maxwell ’66 (Drake University),
  • J. Fritz Schwaller ’69 (SUNY-Potsdam), and
  • moderator George Drake ’56 (President Emeritus, Grinnell College).

The Alumni College will hold courses on the theme of preservation starting the 27th, and Gertrude B. Austin Professor of Economics William Ferguson ’75 will partner with David Calvert ’75 to offer the annual alumni lecture on “Community and Responsive Governance: Academic and Practical Perspectives.”


Cyperaceae Workshop

The Cyperaceae plant family includes sedges (Carex spp.), bulrushes (Schoenoplectus spp.), cottongrassses (Eriophorum spp.), spikerushes (Eleocharis spp.), and in Iowa, over 160 species of grass-like, tufted plants with reduced flowers, found primarily in wetlands, but also in prairies, savannas, and woodlands.  While identification of these species can  be difficult, knowledge of diversity within the Cyperaceae family is critical for assessing habitat floristic quality, collecting seeds for restoration projects, and documenting distributions of common and rare plants. Join amateur and professional botanists in learning how to use dichotomous keys in the lab and identify the Cyperaceae in the field! The two-day format of the workshop will provide ample time for interaction with instructors and exposure to many species in a variety of habitats in Central Iowa.

Joining us from near and far, four talented and experienced botanist-educators will be co-leading the Cyperaceae Workshop:

  • Scott Zager, plant ecologist at Wildlands Ecological Services,
  • Tom Rosburg, professor of biology at Drake University,
  • William (Bill) Norris, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Western New Mexico University,
  • Russ Kleinman, associate botanist at Dale A. Zimmerman Herbarium

The Cyperaceae Workshop will take place at the 365-acre  Grinnell College Conard Environmental Research Area (CERA), near Kellogg, in Jasper County. Morning sessions will take place in the Environmental Education Center and focus on (1) learning and identifying characteristics on sample specimens and (2) using dichotomous keys. Afternoon sessions will involve field identification practice on two field trips: one to a privately owned sedge meadow in Mahaska County, and another to Engeldinger Marsh or Hartley Heritage Fen in Jasper County. Participants will be taught how to mount plant specimens to be preserved in the Grinnell College Herbarium and given time time to photograph collections and specimens.

See the Cyperaceae Workshop 2015 brochure (pdf) for more information and registration information.

Sponsored by:

Decoding Diversity

Lester Alemán ’07 became an advocate and a leader while a Posse Scholar at Grinnell College. He also worked as a program director for nearly four years at the Posse Foundation in Los Angeles. So it’s only fitting he had a chance showcase those skills while discussing the often controversial topic of diversity at the first-ever TEDxGrinnell event.

We talked with Lester about his TEDxGrinnell experience and time as a Grinnell student.  

What was it like giving a TEDxGrinnell talk?

Lester Alemen, left, talks to TEDx attendeesDelivering a TED Talk is, by far, one of the most challenging things I’ve done in my career. I’m honored that Grinnell College thought of me as someone who is a subject-matter expert in the field of diversity initiatives. My speech delivered a dose of obvious. But what’s more striking to me is that no matter how obvious diversity is in this country, we — as a nation— still resist it. I wrote my talk not only for the sociology majors of the country, but for people who need a reminder of what truly shapes this nation, and how we continuously perpetuate our lack of acceptance. “It’s not okay” somehow became my tag line. So when I think of how many people kept repeating that after my talk, I think I drove a message home. Now the work rests in the hands of those who listened.

Thinking back as a student, what is the most striking way you were affected by the culture shift from your home in Los Angeles to Grinnell?

Attending Grinnell College allowed me to understand the fabric of our social landscape. It also taught me to be very vocal and persuasive in the pursuit of social change. Going from an urban environment to a rural setting taught me to be adaptable. Those four years really shaped my vision for how I live my professional life.

What’s the most important piece of advice you would share with prospective Grinnellians?

The biggest piece of advice I can offer any prospective student is that Grinnell College is not the college for just anyone. Grinnell not only offers the unique opportunity to learn about the unique world we are all a part of, it offers the opportunity for you to truly become an agent of change. If change isn’t what you were made to do — then this isn’t the school for you. If change is what you live for, then welcome.

What’s the most important way Grinnell College assisted you in becoming the leader you are today?

There were caring adults who wanted nothing more than to see me thrive — and knew exactly how to help facilitate that growth. That was new for me. They taught me the most important thing a leader needs in this world: true and active compassion. 

  • Taking a course with Kesho Scott, associate professor of sociology and American studies, is a must for anyone that appreciates witty, insightful banter — the kind that gives you an eye-opening dose of what we are doing to each other in this world.
  • Karla Erickson, associate professor of sociology, taught me that only I could dictate my path and pushed me to make tough decisions as my major adviser.
  • Kara Lycke was a soundboard for the frustration I felt the more I learned about the injustices in our education system.
  • Judy Hunter had the patience to really teach me how to put my feelings and thoughts into words at the Writing Lab.
  • Katherine McClelland helped me overcome my fear of math so I could pass my statistics class.
  • The late Howard Burkle indulged all my life questions — and my appetite, I should add — as my Posse Mentor.
  • Charlie Duke gave my Posse a home away from home when Howard could no longer do that.

Alemán currently works at NBCUniversal in the Page Program, Talent Development Group.

Partnering with Harvard Business School

Grinnell College has entered into an agreement with HBX, the online arm of Harvard Business School, to provide additional benefits for Grinnell students taking Harvard’s online business fundamentals course, the Credential of Readiness (CORe) program.

The partnership expands access to CORe for Grinnell students by enabling HBX to provide increased levels of need-based financial aid for the program, guaranteeing space in CORe for Grinnell students and support for additional student-related services. HBX has entered into similar partnerships with Carleton College, Hamilton College, Wellesley College, and Williams College. These agreements are based on a similar arrangement for Harvard College students since summer 2014.

“We are delighted to partner with these five prominent colleges to create additional opportunities for their students to participate in the CORe program,” says Harvard Business School professor Bharat Anand, faculty chair of HBX.

“We, too, are excited about this partnership,” says Mark Peltz, the Daniel ’77 and Patricia Jipp Finkelman ’80 Dean in the Center for Careers, Life, and Service (CLS). “The HBX CORe program complements Grinnell’s rigorous liberal arts education with its focus on business analytics, economics for managers, and financial accounting. The case-study approach used at HBS requires participants to apply and develop these market-ready skills. Students from all academic backgrounds — with wide-ranging career aspirations — would benefit from this program.” Additional funding support for this new partnership is made possible by the Finkelman Deanship.


HBX CORe is an online program, consisting of approximately 150 hours of learning, for students and early career professionals to learn the fundamentals of business on a highly engaging and interactive platform designed by Harvard Business School faculty.

“The HBX CORe program has been designed to teach the fundamentals of business to college students, and to prepare them for the workplace,” Anand says. “We created our own course platform to allow students to learn using Harvard Business School’s signature inductive learning approach that leverages certain key aspects of the HBS learning environment: real-world problem solving, a highly interactive experience for participants, and the integration of social learning to allow participants to leverage the knowledge of their peers.”

CORe consists of three courses:

  • Business Analytics
  • Economics for Managers
  • Financial Accounting

CORe was first offered in summer 2014 and has since been offered to three more groups of learners.

CORe will next be offered in:

  • An 11-week format starting on June 3
  • An 8-week format starting on July 7
  • A 12-week format starting on September 9, 2015

To learn more about the CORe program and to apply for upcoming sessions, visit the HBX website.

Faulconer Gallery Unveils Bequest of Works by Toulouse-Lautrec and Others

Saxoleine, poster by Jules Cheret, 1896

Jules Cheret, Saxoleine Pétrole de Sureté, 1896

Grinnell College's Faulconer Gallery has received a bequest of 14 posters and lithographs by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Pierre Bonnard, and others from the estate of William M. Moore. The collection is named The Lenny Seidenman Collection, Bequest of William M. Moore, in memory of Nina Seidenman ’71. It honors both Moore’s deceased wife, who attended Grinnell College for two years and remembered her time with great pride, and his father-in-law, Lenny Seidenman, who collected the art while doing Jewish relief work in Paris just after World War II.

The collection includes:

  • Three posters, including the iconic Divan Japonais, and seven lithographs by Toulouse-Lautrec
  • A poster by Bonnard
  • Three posters by Jules Chéret
  • A large theatrical poster by Bécon.  

The works are now on view in the Print and Drawing Study Room on the lower level of Burling Library.

In making the offer of the collection, Moore wrote: “It has fallen to me to try to keep the collection intact by finding an eventual home for it, somewhere that would appreciate these incredible images when I am no longer able to enjoy them….”  The quality of the works and the connection with a Grinnell alumna, along with the family’s deep connection to education, made this bequest a wonderful addition to the Faulconer Gallery art collection.

Both Moore and Seidenman taught at Milton Academy, a private school in Milton, Massachusetts. Moore was raised in Vermont and Seidenman grew up in Europe, where her father was executive vice-president of the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, working in France, Italy, and other countries to relocate Jewish refugees.

“The Lenny Seidenman Collection adds wonderful posters and prints from the late nineteenth century to our works on paper collection. These posters and prints will be of interest to students and faculty in art, French, theatre, history, gender and women’s studies, and to our wider audience,” says Faulconer Gallery director Lesley Wright. “Moore first approached us about adding the bequest to his will in 2013; we are only sorry that he passed away shortly after we met — much sooner than we expected. We are honored to have the collection at Grinnell.”

The Print and Drawing Study Room is open Monday to Friday from 1–5 p.m.

Public Writing, Public Libraries

This May, writers attending Grin City Collective Artist & Writers Residency will install brand-new public art — works of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry — in the windows of 12 Iowa libraries.

The four authors, Pauliina Haasjoki (Helsinki, Finland), Kevin Haworth (Athens, Ohio), Molly Rideout (Grinnell, Iowa), and Purvi Shah (Brooklyn, New York), worked closely with library staff to select theme, subject, and genre for the work to be installed.

Each of these authors will read from their work and talk about their careers and process in May's "Public Writing, Public Libraries" reading series.

  • Shah will read at 9 p.m. May 11 at Grinnell College's Burling Library and at 2 p.m. at Marshalltown Public Library.
  • Haajoki will read at 1:30 p.m. May 11 at Knoxville Public Library.
  • Haworth will read at 7 p.m. May 7 at Coralville Public Library and at 6:30 p.m., May 12 at North Liberty Community Library.
  • Rideout will read at 6:30 p.m. May 11 at Newton Public Library.

With their broad range of genres, styles, and cultural backgrounds, the authors each took a different approach to their three partnered libraries

The Authors

Purvi Shah (Brooklyn, New York)

Installed in: Grinnell College Burling Library, Cedar Falls Public Library, Marshalltown Public Library

Shah's poetry will speak directly to each of her partnered communities. The winner of the SONY South Asian Social Service Excellence Award will meet with community members and library staff before composing unique poems for Cedar Falls and Marshalltown Public Libraries and Grinnell College. To better reach Marshalltown's diverse community, that library's poem will be installed in English, Spanish and Burmese. Poetry's accessibility is very important to Shah, who immigrated to America from India as a child.

Pauliina Haasjoki (Helsinki, Finland)

Installed in: Pella, Knoxville, and Waterloo public libraries

Haasjoki's poetry has been translated into seven different languages. Patrons will enjoy poems in both English and her native Finnish. Haasjoki, who has published several books of poetry, developed her poems during her travels in Australia and Iowa.

Kevin Haworth (Athens, Ohio)

Installed in: North Liberty, Coralville, and Tama public libraries

Haworth, author of the Samuel Goldberg Foundation Prize-winning novel "The Discontinuity of Small Things," selected excerpts from his forthcoming personal essay, "Vivaldi," which he wrote last spring at Grin City Collective.

The full essay follows three narratives:

  • the story of Haworth's time living in Jerusalem,
  • his young son's journey learning to play the cello, and
  • the history of Jewish musicians conscripted into the Auschwitz orchestra.

Molly Rideout (Grinnell, Iowa)

Installed in: Newton, Toledo, and Cedar Rapids public libraries

Patrons will enjoy micro-fiction and personal essays by Grin City Collective's co-director, writer Molly Rideout. Rather than selecting excerpts from a larger piece, Rideout chose short, original, unpublished stories for each community to enjoy in their entirety.

"Public Writing, Public Libraries"

"Public Writing, Public Libraries" is a program of Grin City Collective Artist & Writers Residency. Hosting more than 45 visiting artists and writers each year, Grin City provides artists with time, space and the tools they need to make creative work with a direct impact on Iowa.

"The talent of our visiting artists have a direct impact on our community," Rideout says. "We support the inception of over 50 artist projects a year. Select projects, like 'Public Writing, Public Libraries,' have a lasting effect for Iowa. Then our visiting artists and writers return home to New York or Montana or Perth, Australia, and continue building community with their work. The impact is global, but it starts right here."

All literary art installations will be available for public enjoyment by the end of May and will remain for the next one to four years. Those wishing to visit all participating libraries can purchase the final booklet highlighting each location and its partnering writer. Booklets will be available in July.

"Public Writing, Public Libraries" is made possible thanks to the generous support of Grinnell College, Martha-Ellen Tye Foundation, ACT Inc., Vermeer Corporation, Friends of the Cedar Falls Public Library, Friends of the Waterloo Public Library, Friends of the Newton Public Library, The Arts Connection Inc., and Coralville Public Library. Design and printing costs for the final publication are sponsored by Grinnell College.