Tony Perman (ethnomusicology) is a specialist in the music of Zimbabwe and the semiotics of music and emotion. He has received degrees from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (PhD), the School of Oriental and African Studies (MMus), and Kenyon College (BA). Before coming to Grinnell, Dr. Perman previously taught at Bowdoin College and Pomona College. He is primarily interested in the semiotics and emotion of performance among the Ndau in southeastern Zimbabwe and has also written previously about mbira music and popular music in Zimbabwe, where he conducted several years of field research. Other research interests include the role of music in religious experience and spirit possession, issues of musical ethics and aesthetics and popular music's role in issues of African identity. He has publications in Ethnomusicology, Ethnomusicology Forum, The Journal of Musicological Research, and The Journal of Religion in Africa.